Pharmacogenomics (PGx)

What is pharmacogenomics (PGx)?

Everyone responds to medicine differently.

Pharmacogenomics (far ma-ko-jen-om-iks), also called pharmacogenetics, is the study of how people respond differently to medication based on their genetics.

A simple genetic test can tell you which medications may work for you with the fewest side effects. With the power of PGx, your doctor can develop a plan specific for you.

Schedule an appointment

After talking with your doctor about your medications and potential genetic testing, they can refer to the pharmacogenomics team or you can call to make an appointment.

Please call (605) 404-4000 to learn more or make an appointment.

Most appointments will occur between the patient and the provider at the pharmacogenomics clinic.

Depending on the reason for your visit, your provider may:

  • Review your personal and family medical history
  • Discuss the way your body processes medications
  • Look for possible drug-gene interactions
  • Guide you on future medication selection and dosing
  • Review the benefits and limitations of each test

Learn more about Pharmacogenomics at Sanford Health and what your results mean to you.

Learn more about pharmacogenomics

Who should consider pharmacogenomic testing?

Pharmacogenomic testing may be helpful for those who:

  • Have a history of or are currently experiencing medication side effects
  • Have a history of medications that did not work
  • Would like to learn which medications to avoid and which they may not respond to as expected

View List of Medications tested

Why should I do pharmacogenomic testing?

Genetic testing helps doctors develop a treatment plan specific to you.

The results of your PGx test may help your pharmacist and doctor decide which medications will work best for you with the fewest side effects.

Factors that influence how your body processes medications

A variety of factors can influence how your body absorbs and processes medications. This chart identifies some of those factors.

How medication works differently for different patients

Patients absorb and process medications differently based on a variety of factors. Through PGx testing, we may be able to determine the correct medication and dose that best suits you.

Veterans & Military Members

In partnership with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs PHASER Program, Sanford Imagenetics has expanded the PGx testing program to all U.S. military members and veterans.

If you’ve served in the U.S. military, you may qualify for a discount.

Contact us to learn more.

Frequently Asked Questions

How do I enroll in PGx Testing?

Talk to Your Doctor. Discuss PGx testing with your provider. They can order testing on your behalf. Find a Doctor

Call the PGx Clinic. Patients can schedule an in-person or virtual visit with the PGx cinic where a provider can order the test for you. Call (605) 404-4000 to schedule an appointment.

What happens after the PGx test is ordered?

You’ll provide a blood sample at any Sanford Lab

You’ll receive your results through My Sanford Chart
Your results will be available within 14 days and sent to your ordering provider and the clinical pharmacy team. You can review your results any time by going to the Menu and selecting Genetic Profile at the bottom of the My Record section.

A pharmacist will review our PGx results
A Sanford pharmacist will contact your provider regarding medication recommendations. When you receive your results, please do not stop your medication(s) or make any medical changes before consulting with your provider first.

Are there testing limitations?


  • This test isn’t comprehensive and doesn’t identify all genetic variations or conditions.
  • This test does not provide information for all medications.
  • This test offers additional information for your provider to make clinical decisions and is not the only consideration in your treatment.

Please tell your provider if you have any of the following:

  • A current leukemia diagnosis
  • Had a blood transfusion in the last 30 days
  • Had a bone marrow transplant at any time in your life
  • Had a liver transfer at any time in your life
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